Question types

Value-based indicators are probably the most popular type of indicators used for monitoring projects. However, they may not always be the best choice. Logframer offers you no less than 17 different types of indicators to make sure you have the right indicator for the right occasion. They are grouped in five main groups:

  • Indicators without targets: sometimes it is impossible to predict what changes will be brought about by your project, but you still want to know what the effects are.
  • Value-based indicators: the most used and arguably the easiest way to keep track of your project
  • Multiple option indicators: if you have indicators with multiple dimensions, multiple option or multiple choice indicators can be the right choice.
  • Ordinal indicators: similar to multiple choice or multiple option, but in this case there is a particular order in the possible answers, from low to high or from small to big or…
  • Indicators to express opinion: to measure more complex things like opinions and behaviour you may need answer scales such as the Likert scale that make use of different statements. The development of such indicators takes more effort but in certain circumstances they can be very valuable.

Before you start detailing your indicators, the first choice you have to make is on the right type of question to use. On the Scoring tab, select one of the options from the Question type drop-down list:

Indicators without targets

Open ended question

Ask a question and specify how much space the respondent (or interviewer) gets to answer

 

Best/worst scaling (Max Diff)

The respondent gets a number of different options and can indicate which is the best and the worst option

 

Images

Include a picture of the situation before the project. For each report the respondent has to include a follow-up picture

Value-based indicators

Values

Specify baseline and target values; choose the unit (items, kg, liters…) and specify a value range if necessary (min. and maximum values)

 

Percentages

Same as the above, but expressed as a percentage

 

Ratio

The respondent has to provide two numbers and then the ratio is calculated (for instance ratio of girls to boys in schools)

 

Formula

Allows the respondent to give a series of numbers. You can specify a formula to give you the total number you want. Useful for sums of a series of items, complex ratios etc.

Multiple options

Yes/no question

Respondent/interviewer can tick the box next to yes or no

 

Multiple options

Identify different options so the respondent/interviewer can tick one or more of the options

 

Multiple choice

Identify different options so the respondent/interviewer can tick (only) one of the options

Ordinal questions

Ranking

Identify different options, which the respondent has to rank according to his/her preference

 

Likert type scale

A typical Likert scale has five options (but can also be less or more), for example: strongly disagree; agree; neutral; disagree; strongly disagree. This indicator has only one statement to score

 

Semantic differential

Similar to a Likert type scale, but with a series of pairs: interesting – not interesting; practical – not practical; smurf – not smurf

Expressing opinion

Scale (Thurstone)

Uses a series of statements on which the respondent can indicate if he/she agrees or disagrees with the statement. Each statement expresses a more or less positive attitude towards the concept that’s being analysed. These statements have been issued a score before based on a preliminar survey. This score is then used to measure the attitude of the respondent.

 

Likert scale

Similar to Thurstone scale in design, but instead of a choice between agree/disagree, the respondent can give a more nuanced answer by indicating how strongly he/she agrees or disagrees.

 

Cumulative scale (Guttman)

Similar to Thurstone scale, but the statements are ranked, meaning that if you agree with the fourth statement, it is understood that automatically you agree with the three that came before.

 

Frequency table - Likert scale

A likert scale that is useful for working with groups, organisations, etc. because instead of indicating what the answer is of one person, you can register how many people have chosen that particular option (frequency).

Other types

Images with targets

Not only can you show an image of the baseline situation, but you can also include images of how the situation will look like from one moment to the other.

 

Mixed sub-indicators

If you add sub-indicators of different question types to a main indicator, the question type of the latter will be set to ‘Mixed sub-indicators’. The total score of this main indicator is always a score (never a value or percentage).

 

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